A conceptual framework for understanding and designing complex cultural user experiences in terms of multiple trajectories. Trajectories capture the idea of establishing a coherent journey through an extended experience that combines many different spaces, times, roles and interfaces. The framework identifies the different kinds of transitions and traversals that may occur along a trajectory and shows how diverging, converging and crossing trajectories describe important aspects of multi-user experiences and reflect the tension between pre-scripted narrative and interactivity.
- Gifting Personal Interpretations in Museums (Fosh, Benford, Reeves and Koleva) presents a study of visitors to a contemporary art gallery designing a personalised gift trajectories for a partner and what happened when they subsequently tried it out together.
- From interaction to trajectories (Benford, Giannachi, Koleva and Rodden, Proceedings of CHI 2009) introduces the trajectories conceptual framework. The paper reflects upon four experiences, Desert Rain, Uncle Roy all Around You, fairground: Thrill Laboratory, and Day of the Figurines. It introduces the core approach of trajectories along with key transitions and traversals. It also introduces canonical and participant trajectories and discusses interleaved trajectories. Winner of a CHI 2009 best paper award.
- ‘See Me, Feel Me, Touch Me, Hear Me’: Trajectories and Interpretation in a Sculpture Garden (Fosh, Benford, Reeves, Koleva, Brundell, CHI 2013) applies trajectories to the design of a sculpture trail, crafting a trajectory through each sculpture that combines text and audio instructions that direct viewing, movement and touching while listening to accompanying music. We describe how visitors generally followed this trajectory, engaging with sculpture and making interpretations.
- Temporal Trajectories in Shared Interactive Narratives (Benford & Giannachi, Proceedings of CHI 2008). A precursor to the general trajectories framework that focuses specifically on trajectories through time. This paper introduces a conceptual framework for reasoning about time in narrative driven experiences such as games, hypermedia stories and interactive performances based upon the concept of temporal trajectories that express different mappings between fictional story time and actual clock time. Three kinds of temporal trajectory, canonical, participant and historic, enable us to reason about issues such as pacing, synchronisation and fictional time travel.
- Flypad: Designing Trajectories in a Large-Scale Permanent Augmented Reality Installation (Flintham et al, Proceedings of ECSCW 2011). Presents and ethnographic study of Flypad, a twelve player augmented reality game that is a permanent installation at The Public art gallery. The study reveals how the artists designed a trajectory through the experience, how this was experienced by visitors, and how it has evolved over time.
- Creating the Spectacle: Designing Interactional Trajectories through Spectator Interfaces (Benford et al, ACM Transactions on CHI, 2011). An ethnographic study reveals how professional artists created a spectator interface for the interactive game Day of the Figurines, designing the size, shape, height and materials of two tabletop interfaces before carefully arranging them in a local setting. We consider how the artists worked with a multi-scale notion of interactional trajectory that combined trajectories through individual displays, trajectories through a local ecology of displays, and trajectories through an entire experience.