The temporal aspects of interaction are complex but important, from the short term impacts of delays, to the synchronisation of different participants experiences, to new approaches to interweaving recorded interactions with live ones, to the long term evolution of systems.
- Temporal Trajectories in Shared Interactive Narratives (Benford & Giannachi, Proceedings of CHI 2008) introduces a conceptual framework for reasoning about time in narrative driven experiences such as games, hypermedia stories and interactive performances based upon the concept of temporal trajectories that express different mappings between fictional story time and actual clock time. Three kinds of temporal trajectory, canonical, participant and historic, enable us to reason about issues such as pacing, synchronisation and fictional time travel.
- Revealing delay in collaborative environments (Gutwin, Benford, Dyck, Fraser, Vaghi, & Greenhalgh, Proceedings of CHI 2004) describes experiments that show that revealing the presence and nature of delay at the interface can support participants in developing coping strategies, leading to proposals for new interface widgets,
- Temporal links: recording and replaying virtual environments (Greenhalgh, Purbrick, Benford, Craven, Drozd & Taylor, Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 2000) presents a techniques for making system recordings of events in collaborative virtual environments and then playing them back in live virtual environments at various speeds, sizes and with different presentations, so that live participants can follow and react to them, which in turn may generate further nested recordings and so on.
- The evolution of buildings and implications for the design of ubiquitous domestic environments (Rodden & Benford, Proceedings of CHI 2003), draws on the work of the architect Stewart Brand to reflect on the ways in which interactive technologies in the home form part of an evolving ecology and proposes how we might consider the evolution of such technologies in terms of different layers of time.
- Are You Watching This Film or What?: Interruption and the Juggling of Cohorts (Tolmie, Crabtree, Rodden & Benford, Proceedings of CSCW 2008) presents an ethnographic study of how participants in the text messaging adventure game Day of the Figurines managed and accounted for interruptions from the game.
- Inferring player engagement in a pervasive experience (Fischer & Benford, proceedings of CHI 2009) presents a study using the experience sampling method to investigate the prediction of player engagement to address temporal issues arising from the long-term character of pervasive experiences such as interruptibility, mutual player state awareness, disengagement and synchronization on re-engagement.