The increasingly public nature of interaction, in museums, galleries, theme parks, clubs, bars, and on the city streets, raises new challenges for HCI concerning the nature of spectatorship and the framing of interaction in public.
- A Conversation Between Trees:What Data Feels Like In The Forest (Jacobs, Benford, Selby, Golembewski, Dominic Price, Giannachi, CHI 2013) presents a study of an interactive artwork that shows how artists engaged the public with scientific climate change data. It shows that the artists adopted a distinct approachthat fostered an emotional engagement with data rather than an informative or persuasive one and charts the performative strategies they used to achieve this including sensory engagement with data, a temporal structure that balanced liveness with slowness, and the juxtaposition of different treatments of the data to enable interpretation and dialogue.
- Designing the spectator experience (Reeves, Benford, OMalley and Fraser, Proceedings of CHI 2005) explores different strategies for designing he spectator view of interaction. A comparison of different approaches to hiding, transforming, revealing or even amplifying manipulations of an interface and their consequent effects reveals four contrasting approaches referred to as secretive, expressive, magical and suspenseful. Winner of a CHI 2005 best paper award.
- The frame of the game: blurring the boundary between fiction and reality in mobile experiences (Benford, Crabtree, Reeves, Flintham, Drozd, Sheridan and Dix, Proceedings of CHI 2006) explores through a study of the game Uncle Roy All Around You some of the different ways in which public interaction can be framed, leading to a distinction between audience and possibly unwitting bystanders, and considering ambiguous framing can raise new opportunities and also risks for playful experiences.
- Creating a Live Broadcast from a Virtual Environment (Greenhalgh, Benford, Taylor, Bowers, Walker & Wyver, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1999) describes the design and collaborative use of virtual cameras so as to create a public broadcast view of a live gameshow in a collaborative virtual environment as an experiment into what we referred to as Inhabited Television